In order to avoid the danger caused by gas explosion experiments, the traditional gas explosion test can be replaced by generating gas explosion loads by load simulation devices. In this paper, a gas explosion load simulation device and loading method based on a drop weight-spring collision system are designed and developed, the motion equation of the system response process is established through one-dimensional elastic collision theory, and the functional relationship between load and time is derived. According to the characteristics of the pressure time function, the measured pressure time history curve of the gas explosion is fitted in the form of the product of the sinusoidal function and exponential function, and a rapid calculation method for the parameters of the drop weight-spring collision system that simulates the gas explosion load is established. The device and experimental methods show that by reducing the damping coefficient, spring stiffness, and mass of the drop weight of the damper, the pressure loading time consistent with the gas explosion load characteristics can be obtained. The drop weight-spring collision system can effectively simulate the gas explosion load in multiple working conditions and scenarios.