The measurement of two-dimensional/three-dimensional temperature fields based on optical principles involves utilizing changes in refractive index, radiation information, and spectral information of an object. This method infers the temperature of the object by analyzing its transmission characteristics, thermal radiation, or particle characteristics. Traditional contact-based temperature measurement methods have limitations, whereas optical temperature measurement techniques provide a viable solution through non-contact measurement. The current research status indicates significant advancements in optical temperature measurement techniques. Methods such as interferometry, radiation thermometry, and laser spectroscopy diagnostic have been widely applied in various fields. These methods continue to improve in terms of temperature measurement accuracy, measurement range, time response, device size, and portability. Furthermore, in the field of three-dimensional temperature field measurement, researchers have made significant progress by improving and optimizing measurement techniques and equipment. This provides important experimental means for achieving a comprehensive understanding and optimization of complex heat conduction, combustion processes, material properties, and more. Additionally, optical temperature measurement techniques have found wide-ranging applications in industrial production, medical diagnostics, and other fields. This opens up new opportunities and challenges for achieving more efficient, accurate, and intelligent temperature measurement and monitoring.