Pure hydrogen pipeline is a low-cost, large-scale and long-distance transportation method. But there are a number of technical and economic challenges in the development of pure hydrogen pipelines. The paper introduces the evaluation indexes of pure hydrogen pipeline, summarizes the development status of pure hydrogen pipeline abroad and in China, and discusses the technical challenges and economic factors influencing the development of pure hydrogen pipeline. The technical problems facing the large-scale development of pure hydrogen pipelines can be solved, and the costs of building and operating pure hydrogen pipelines will be significantly reduced. With the rapid development of the hydrogen energy industry, the development of pure hydrogen pipeline for hydrogen transmission will become the most efficient and economical way to transport hydrogen. It is suggested that the layout of the pure hydrogen pipeline network should be planned, standards and norms for pure hydrogen pipeline transmission should be formulated, a safety supervision and emergency decision-making platform should be established, an operation management system should be built, and the industrialization of pure hydrogen pipeline transmission should be gradually promoted.