Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique can not only characterize the microstructure of materials, but also qualitatively analyze the elastic and plastic strains of the tested area. Currently, this technique has been widely used for characterizing the microstructure of crystalline materials. Since the microstructure and stress state of materials may change during service, studying the internal relationship between microstructure and strain field evolution of the crystals under different service environments are of great significance for investigating the failure behavior and mechanism of the materials. The basic principles, preparation methods of EBSD sample, and main functions of EBSD technique are introduced. The application examples based on EBSD technique in the field of materials science are given, the analysis methods for studying the microstructure and micromechanics behavior of materials are explored using different imaging data of EBSD.