## 跳台滑雪中运动员采用什么姿态飞得既稳且远1)

*北京理工大学宇航学院,北京 100081

## WHAT POSE DOES THE ATHLETE USE TO FLY STEADILY AND FAR IN SKI JUMPING1)

JIANG Liang*, CHEN Xue*, GAO Xianzhi*, Huang Yi*, MA Yun,*,2), HUO Bo,*,3), WU Xia, WANG Ning

*School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China

China Media Group, Beijing 100020, China

 基金资助: 1)科技部重点研发计划"科技冬奥"专项"国家科学化训练基地建设关键技术研究与示范"项目(2018YFF0300800)国家自然科学基金(12002042)教育部第二批新工科研究与实践项目(E-SXWLHXLX20202602)

Abstract

It explains the technical characteristics and mechanical principles in the ski jumping sport during the four phases, i.e., approach, takeoff, flight and landing. Relevant experiments have been carried out to investigate the dynamics. It is found that the leg thrust against the ground during takeoff phase and maintaining specific body posture during flight phase are the key factors to ensure the athletes to achieve satisfactory scores during the game. This paper also discusses the possible applications of the relevant experiments for teaching theoretical mechanics.

Keywords： ski jumping; mechanical principles; demonstration experiment

JIANG Liang, CHEN Xue, GAO Xianzhi, Huang Yi, MA Yun, HUO Bo, WU Xia, WANG Ning. WHAT POSE DOES THE ATHLETE USE TO FLY STEADILY AND FAR IN SKI JUMPING1). Mechanics in Engineering, 2022, 44(2): 470-473 DOI:10.6052/1000-0879-22-109

## 3 飞行阶段

$F_{\rm l}=\rho C_{\rm l}Av^{2}/2$
$F_{\rm d}=\rho C_{\rm d}Av^{2}/2$

## 参考文献 原文顺序 文献年度倒序 文中引用次数倒序 被引期刊影响因子

Schwameder H.

Biomechanics research in ski jumping, 1991—2006

Sports Biomechanics, 2008, 7(1):114-136

In this paper, I review biomechanics research in ski jumping with a specific focus on publications presented between 1991 and 2006 on performance enhancement, limiting factors of the take-off, specific training and conditioning, aerodynamics, and safety. The first section presents a brief description of ski jumping phases (in-run, take-off, early flight, stable flight, and landing) regarding the biomechanical and functional fundamentals. The most important and frequently used biomechanical methods in ski jumping (kinematics, ground reaction force analyses, muscle activation patterns, aerodynamics) are summarized in the second section. The third section focuses on ski jumping articles and research findings published after the establishment of the V-technique in 1991, as the introduction of this technique has had a major influence on performance enhancement, ski jumping regulations, and the construction of hill profiles. The final section proposes topics for future research in the biomechanics of ski jumping, including: take-off and early flight and the relative roles of vertical velocity and forward somersaulting angular momentum; optimal jumping patterns utilizing the capabilities of individual athletes; development of kinematic and kinetic feedback systems for hill jumps; comparisons of simulated and hill jumps; effect of equipment modifications on performance and safety enhancement.

Zanevskyy I, Banakh V.

Dependence of ski jump length on the skier's body pose at the beginning of take-off

Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, 2010, 12(4):79-87

A kinematical model of the ski jumper's body pose at the beginning of take-off was proposed. A method of measuring skier's body coordinates based on the results of video recordings and office information technologies was created. Kinematical parameters of the skier's body pose at the beginning of take-off were determined using sport competition results of 33 ski jumpers. Five parameters of the pose which show statistically significant correlation (р < 0.03) with the jump length were determined. A part of variation of the model parameters in the total variation of the jump length is almost equal to 53%, and relative correlation is strong and significant (p < 0.005). Recommendations regarding optimization of the body pose at the beginning of take-off were formulated.

Virmavirta M, Kivekas J, Komi P.

Ski jumping takeoff in a wind tunnel with skis

Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2011, 27(4):375-379

The effect of skis on the force-time characteristics of the simulated ski jumping takeoff was examined in a wind tunnel. Takeoff forces were recorded with a force plate installed under the tunnel floor. Signals from the front and rear parts of the force plate were collected separately to examine the anteroposterior balance of the jumpers during the takeoff. Two ski jumpers performed simulated takeoffs, first without skis in nonwind conditions and in various wind conditions. Thereafter, the same experiments were repeated with skis. The jumpers were able to perform very natural takeoff actions (similar to the actual takeoff) with skis in wind tunnel. According to the subjective feeling of the jumpers, the simulated ski jumping takeoff with skis was even easier to perform than the earlier trials without skis. Skis did not much influence the force levels produced during the takeoff but they still changed the force distribution under the feet. Contribution of the forces produced under the rear part of the feet was emphasized probably because the strong dorsiflexion is needed for lifting the skis to the proper flight position. The results presented in this experiment emphasize that research on ski jumping takeoff can be advanced by using wind tunnels.

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