## 速度滑冰如何减小空气阻力1)

*北京理工大学宇航学院,北京 100081

## HOW TO REDUCE AIR RESISTANCE IN SPEED SKATING1)

CHEN Xiaodong,*,2), HE Guosheng*, YANG Xiufeng*, HU Jing, WANG Ning

*School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China

China Media Group, Beijing 100020, China

 基金资助: 1)国家自然科学基金(11772343)教育部第二批新工科研究与实践项目(E-SXWLHXLX20202602)

Abstract

This paper mainly introduces how speed skaters reduce air resistance in competition. Firstly, the air resistance of speed skater is introduced, including friction resistance and differential pressure resistance. Then, wind tunnel experiments and computer simulations are carried out to illustrate how speed skaters reduce drag through clothing, posture and alignment. The research on drag reduction in speed skating can provide technical support for winter olympic athletes and help to improve competition results.

Keywords： peed skating; air resistance; wind tunnel experiment; numerical simulation

CHEN Xiaodong, HE Guosheng, YANG Xiufeng, HU Jing, WANG Ning. HOW TO REDUCE AIR RESISTANCE IN SPEED SKATING1). Mechanics in Engineering, 2022, 44(2): 458-465 DOI:10.6052/1000-0879-22-095

## 1 速度滑冰中的空气阻力

### 1.1 摩擦阻力

1686年英国科学家牛顿,通过实验验证了流体的内摩擦力定律。没错,这里的牛顿就是发现万有引力的大科学家牛顿。牛顿的内摩擦定律表明：相邻的两层流体之间摩擦力,与黏度系数、流体层之间的速度差、接触面积成正比,与流体层之间的距离成反比。流体包括了液体和气体,虽然一般气体的黏度比较小,比如空气,我们呼吸空气的时候不会费力。但在速度较高的时候还是会产生不可忽略的内摩擦力。图2显示了空气流过圆柱上一个小区域时的速度分布。在圆柱表面上,由于空气有黏性,紧贴表面的这层流体粘附在表面上,空气的速度为零。而在远离表面的位置上,速度为来流速度。空气层与层之间存在相对速度,也就产生了内摩擦力。内摩擦力作用到壁面上,就产生了空气对壁面的摩擦力。

### 1.3 阻力系数

$C_{D} =\frac{2F_{D}}{\rho U_{\infty }^{2}A}$

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