The techniques for the drag reduction of large transport aircraft are reviewed in this paper. The techniques intended to reduce the friction drag, the induced drag and the wave drag are reviewed specifically. Techniques like the suction control for delay boundary layer transition, the riblets for reducing turbulent friction drag, and the winglet are relatively mature for practical application. Distributed roughness, plasma actuators and the contour bump are most like to be used in the newly designed large transport aircraft. These newly developed techniques might be useful in further improving the drag characteristic of the next generation aircraft.
Some clay permeability tests show that the flow of the pore water in clays may depart from the Darcy law under the condition of the lower hydraulic gradient. In order to investigate the influence of the non-Darcy behavior of flow on the consolidation process, the Hansbo equation is introduced to describe the flow in cylindrical soil samples and the Biot consolidation equation under axisymmetric conditions is modified. The numerical analysis is performed by using the Crank--Nicolson finite difference method. The proposed method is validated by comparing the analytical solution of the axisymmetric Biot’s consolidation equation with the Darcy flow. Then the influence of the Hansbo’s flow parameters on the consolidation process of the cylindrical soil sample is investigated. The numerical results show that the Hansbo’s flow delays the consolidation process of the saturated clay compared with the Darcy flow. At the early stage of consolidation, the Mandel-Cryer effect becomes more significant with the increase of the Hansbo’s flow parameters. In other words, the peak value of the pore water pressure will increase, and the reaching of its peak will also be delayed. Similarly, the delaying phenomenon of the pore water pressure dissipation is also more obvious in the later stage of consolidation. However, the Hansbo’s flow has little effect on the displacement in the cylindrical soil.
In order to study the anti-progressive collapse capacity of steel frame structures with semi-rigid connections, the resistance-displacement curve of the steel frame structures under the progressive collapse condition is obtained based on an energy method, as well as the resistance expression at each stage. The performance of the steel frame structure is analyzed based on a beam mechanism in the small deformation state and a catenary mechanism in the large deformation state to prevent the occurrence of the progressive collapse. The reliability of the theoretical formula is verified by comparing with the experimental results of the existing experiments, and a good agreement is observed. It is shown that the progressive collapse resistance expression of the steel frame structures with semi-rigid connections is simple and the results are reliable, and it can be used in the rapid analysis of the progressive collapse resistance of steel frame structures in the related design.