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    A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WING LIFT THEORY
    DING Zurong
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 645-649.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-407
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    This paper reviews the process of exploration of the wing lift theory in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It includes Newton's sine-square law, the understanding and application of the Magnus effect, Lanchester, Kutta, and Joukowsky's establishment of the wing lift circulation theory and Prandtl's establishment of the lift line theory. The historical facts are traced with stories about related scholars.

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    THE HISTORY OF DEPARTMENT OF WATER CONSERVANCY OF PEIYANG UNIVERSITY 1)
    WU Pan, YANG Shaoqiong, JIANG Nan
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 650-660.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-405
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    Based on some historical documents, this paper briefly reviews the development of the Department of Water Conservancy of Peiyang University (Tianjin University), with related events and persons. This paper focuses on the historical continuity of the water conservancy discipline and the Department of Water Conservancy from Peiyang University to Tianjin University and its position in the Chinese higher education of water conservancy; the role of Peiyang University in Chinese First Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and its development process; and the related stories of the Centre of Hydraulic Engineering, famous professors and the outstanding alumni, and shows the historical inheritance and the modernisation achievements of the Department of Water Conservancy of Peiyang University-Tianjin University in the past one hundred and twenty-five years, which inspire a new generation of Tianjin University in water conservancies. Rejuvenate the spirit of Peiyang, and deeply remember the late, outstanding alumni Yu Yuanjun and others.

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    ON THE CHANGES OF MEANING OF “LI” AND “LIXUE” (“FORCE” AND “MECHANICS” IN CHINESE) 1)
    ZHAO Huiming, ZHAO Yucheng, CHENG Hongmei
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 661-664.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-417
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    The words “Li” and “Lixue” exist for a long time in Chinese. The meaning of “Li” is initially a direct and intuitive description of “human force”. Later, it developed for the description of the gravity of general objects, and then to the description of the causes of motion state change. This paper analyzes the changes of the meaning of “Li”. Chinese “Lixue (mechanics)” comes as the result of the introduction of Western learning to the East, and there are many twists and turns in the process of determining the subject name. This paper analyzes the process of determining “Lixue” as the subject name, and reveals the change of ancient Chinese understanding of “Mechanics”.
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    DESIGN AND PRACTICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION EXPERIMENT PROJECT IN STRUCTURE DESIGN COMPETITION 1)
    HE Chunbao, ZHANG Zhaojing, FENG Jinyao
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 665-670.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-418
    Abstract74)      PDF(pc) (3814KB)(139)       Save
    In view of the characteristics of the structural design competition for the civil engineering students and the training requirements for the students' practical ability, the mechanical properties of bamboo components are considered in the structural design competition,and with bamboo and glue as the raw materials,the project of the science and technology innovation experiment is designed. The compression, tension, bending and composite strength experiments of glue and bamboo are carried out on bamboo components of different lengths and thicknesses, the bearing capacity of the components are tested by loading. It is shown that the load ratio of the thick bamboo is better in tension, compression and bending,the load ratio of bamboo can be increased by glue dripping,and the nonlinear characteristics of compressed bamboo components are significant. The innovative experimental project is closely combined with the structural design competition, with a strong practicality and is conducive to the cultivation of students' ability of teamwork and innovation.
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    STRUCTURE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A COMPETITION MODEL FOR THE 10th INTER-UNIVERSITY INVITATION CIVIL ENGINEERING COMPETITION 1)
    ZHANG Xun, XIAO Lin, HE Wei, ZHAN Yulin
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 671-677.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-437
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    The theme of the 10th Inter-University Invitational Civil Engineering Competition is to design a curved bridge, capable of withstanding static and dynamic loadings. A model is required to have a sufficient load-carrying capacity and a reasonable stiffness. Moreover, its mass should be as small as possible. According to the model made by Southwest Jiaotong University, the steps and the methods of the structural optimization are described in terms of the material mechanical properties, the bridge conceptual design and the numerical optimization. The results of the static and dynamic numerical simulations are compared with those of prototype testing. The advantages and disadvantages of the model design are summarized.
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 678-679.  
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    BLOOD FLOW IN THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1)
    QIAO Aike
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 516-522.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-334
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    The blood flow in the circulatory system of human body is the most changeful. This paper discusses the common arterial vessel diseases such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm and aortic dissection. The biomechanical mechanisms related with these vascular diseases and their treatment therapies are analyzed, and the health care of the circulatory system is suggested.
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    Turbulence, wind engineering and wind vibration of Humen Bridge
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 523-525.  
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    DISCUSSION ON TWO PROBLEMS OF THEORETICAL MECHANICS IN COLLEGE MECHANICS COMPETITION 1)
    FU Jingyu, ZHAO Zenghui, SUN Wei
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 526-532.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-377
    Abstract160)      PDF(pc) (734KB)(152)       Save
    For two mechanical contest problems, two simplified coordinate systems are used, that is, the "Serret--Andoyer approximate coordinate system" and the "virtual coordinate system" , respectively, based on the Euler dynamics equation. On this basis, the solutions of the stability conditions of the small ball in the synchronous rotation of the big ball in the 9th problem of the 1st national youth mechanics competition are is discussed. The results show that it has lower stability critical speed requirements. This will be more conducive to improving the stability of the rotation structure. For the problem of rotation balls in the 3rd problem of the 12th National Zhou Peiyuan University Mechanics Competition, the universal motion law at any latitude is derived. When the initial angular momentum of the system is zero, a simple and magical motion mode occurs.
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 533-534.  
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (3): 374-377.  
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    NOTES ON THE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK OF SOLID MECHANICS IN NEWTONIAN MECHANICS 1)
    YU Shouwen
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (1): 110-115.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-331
    Abstract214)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (2532KB)(108)       Save

    Over 40 years ago, the author once faced with several strength and vibration problems related to the structural mechanics and solid mechanics in the design, manufacturing and operating of machines and tried to solve these failure problems and to improve the working of machines. It was found that three aspects are important, that is, the configuration and constraint, the nature of external loading and the properties of structural materials. They are actually based on three elements in the Newtonian mechanics: the loading $F$, the mass of matter $m$ and the acceleration of motion $a$, and the linking between them. This framework can be extended to describe the analysis of solid mechanics. The research framework is further extended in the 1970s, the 1990s and the early 21st century, as shown in Figures 1,2,3. In recent years, the analytical methodology has already extended to more extensive scientific and technological territory and the coupling between the different disciplines asks people to discover new development directions. Smaller and larger scales in space-time will be considered, as well as the process of information and data production and transformation, and the motion of living matters under conventional or extreme loading environment. These new fields can be expected to open for future solid mechanics.

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    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (6): 735-738.  
    Abstract132)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (10152KB)(172)       Save
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    LEONARDO DA VINCI AND FLUID MECHANICS 1)
    CHEN Guangyao, YANG Shaoqiong, JIANG Nan
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (5): 634-639.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-154
    Abstract405)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (7580KB)(129)       Save

    Leonardo da Vinci, known as painter, sculptor, astronomer, inventor, musician, mathematician,anatomist, physiologist, geologist, botanist, writer, military engineer, architect and cartographer, is a representative figure of the Italian Renaissance humanism. This paper describes another aspect of Da Vinci:his research results of fluid mechanics and the contributions related with turbulence, flight, wave and storm, and it is concluded that he is the pioneer and founder of fluid mechanics science as well.

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    WONDER BEYOND EXPECTATION: NOETHER’S THEOREM IN MECHANICS
    HUANG Zaixing
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (5): 628-631.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-18-413
    Abstract459)   HTML19)    PDF(pc) (830KB)(157)       Save

    The Noether’s theorem is one of footstones in modern physics and mechanics, due to the correlations it has established between the conservation laws and the symmetries. The origin, the content and the related anecdotes of the Noether’s theorem are reviewed, as well as the relations between the J-integral, the Eshelby tensor and the Noether’s theorem.

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    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (5): 624-627.  
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    TRAJECTORY DESIGN OF THE GALAXY SETTLEMENT-SUMMARY OF THE CHAMPION TEAM TO THE 10TH GLOBAL TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION COMPETITION
    SHU Peng, LUO Yazhong, SHEN Hongxin
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (4): 498-504.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-292
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    The 10th Global Trajectory Optimisation Competition hosted by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) came to an end in June 2019, and the Chinese team won the championship for the first time. For the first time in history, this competition is based on the sci-fi mission, designing the optimal orbit to settle in 100000 Milky Way stars. This paper introduces the tasks, gravity model and spacecraft maneuver model of the Galaxy settlement mission, and analyzes the merit function of this competition specifically. The tree structure is introduced to represent the settlement solution, and the design method of the initial settler distribution is described. Simultaneously, the forward and reverse tree generation strategies are introduced and compared. The methods of local optimization and topology reconstruction of settlement trees used in the competition are briefly introduced. In the galaxy-s stars map, the champion solution was presented in tree structures. The significance of this competition was summarized and some useful inspirations were obtained.

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    WITH TEN YEARS' EFFORT THE SWORD EDGE IS GRINDED SHARP, AFTER THE COLD WINTER PLUM FLOWER BLOSSOMS-A REVIEW OF CHINA TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION COMPETITION
    LIU Junli, GAO Yang
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (4): 488-497.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-283
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    The China Trajectory Optimization Competition (CTOCorganized by The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, has been successfully held for ten years since its initiation in 2009. With unremitting efforts during the past ten years, CTOC has become a communication platform for domestic universities and research institutions on space trajectory design and optimization research. It not only identifies research talents for space exploration, but also provides knowledge and ideas for this field. This article reviews the development history and achievements of CTOC following the timeline from 2009 to 2019, and summarizes the main features and innovations of the competition.

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    A MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM: HOW MANY TIMES CAN A SHEET OF PAPER BE FOLDED 1)
    ZENG Fanlin
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (4): 483-487.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-18-051
    Abstract1623)   HTML119)    PDF(pc) (1460KB)(482)       Save

    In this paper, the paper folding problem is simplified to a three-point bending model of a simply supported beam with a rectangular cross section under the concentrated force acting on the middle position. The maximal folding times of a sheet of A4 printing paper and octavo newspaper under a normal human force are related with the maximum bending deflections and the minimum folding loads. The results show that for an ordinary A4 printing paper, an adult can only fold 6 times, or up to 7 times under extreme circumstances. For an octavo newspaper, an adult can easily fold 7 times, but not 8 times. The test results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

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    AS LIGHT AS A BUTTERFLY, AS THIN AS A BEE-THE MYSTERY OF DRAGONFLIES BASED ON FLUID MECHANICS 1)
    JIANG Nan, YANG Shaoqiong
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (4): 478-482.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-18-343
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    In the appreciation of the ancient poem for dragonflies, we discuss the magical hydrodynamic characteristics of dragonflies, which have evolved for hundreds of millions of years. The dragonfly's compound eye, the wings' ability of eliminating chatter, the superhydrophobicity of its epidermis, the drag reduction by its scales, and the mechanical characteristics of the water-jet propulsion of the dragonfly larvae; and their inspiration to the development of engineering technology are discussed. At the same time, the development status of the dragonfly robots is introduced as well.

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    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (2): 234-235.  
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (2): 235-236.  
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    SCIENTIFIC FANTASY AND REALITY-TALK ABOUT THE FILM "THE WANDERING EARTH"
    LIU Yanzhu
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (2): 237-238.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-068
    Abstract267)      PDF(pc) (137KB)(123)       Save
    This paper discusses the science fiction film "The Wandering Earth" from the point of view of mechanics, and the possibility of the future technology imagined in this film is discussed.
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    IS SONIC-BOOM-CLOUD RELATED TO SONIC BOOM?
    ZHANG Hua
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (2): 239-243.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-18-263
    Abstract350)      PDF(pc) (3603KB)(74)       Save
    The essence of Sonic-Boom-Cloud is the water vapour condensation cloud caused by the local acceleration and the temperature decreased to the dew point and below, as the flying aircraft passes the high humidity air. It is more appropriate to call it the Condensation Cloud instead of the Sonic-Boom-Cloud. According to the flight speed and their different features, the Condensation Clouds can be divided into three types: the Low Subsonic Speed Irregular Condensation Cloud, the High Subsonic Speed Cone Condensation Cloud and the Supersonic Speed Cone Condensation Cloud. The formation mechanisms of the three types of Condensation Clouds, their different features, their relationship with the shock wave and the Sonic-Boom are discussed in this paper. The first type has no relationship with the Sonic-Boom. The second type is accompanied by the local weak shock wave, it does not break through the Sound Barrier and it is basically irrelevant with the Sonic Boom. The third type is related with the supersonic shock wave and the Sonic Boom.
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    RIGID EQUILIBRIUM AS EXEMPLIFIED BY BIRDS STANDING ON A BRANCH 1)
    Zhang Weiwei, Xue Shuhang, Wang Zhihua
    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (2): 244-246,243.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-18-011
    Abstract573)      PDF(pc) (1034KB)(281)       Save
    To enhance the students' interest for studying Theoretical Mechanics, two teaching cases of static equilibrium are designed in this paper, as the static analysis for birds standing on a branch. Some knowledge points, such as the parallelogram of force, the transmissibility of force, the three-force balance intersecting principle and the conditions of rigid body equilibrium, are used to analyze the forces on the bird' legs on a branch; and the function of the woodpecker tail when it pecked the worm. It is a very enjoyable and educational experience for the students, and can raise students' interest in learning and improve teaching results.
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2019, 41 (2): 247-248.  
    Abstract522)      PDF(pc) (174KB)(149)       Save
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2018, 40 (6): 708-709.  
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2018, 40 (6): 710-716.  
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2018, 40 (6): 717-722.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-18-016
    Abstract187)      PDF(pc) (3478KB)(360)       Save
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2018, 40 (6): 723-726.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-18-057
    Abstract349)      PDF(pc) (18779KB)(485)       Save
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