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    KINEMATICS IN EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN TEXTBOOKS OF THEORETICAL MECHANICS
    CHEN Liqun
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 771-777.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-065
    Abstract47)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (240KB)(76)       Save

    :This paper explores the pedagogical treatments of kinematics in European and American textbooks of theoretical mechanics. 10 textbooks written by the masters of mechanics in France, British, Germany and the US are reviewed to show the historical evolution of teaching materials of kinematics. The motion of points, the motion of rigid-bodies, and the composite motions are analyzed for 7 American textbooks, 2 Germany textbooks and a Russian textbook. Based on the analysis, a few features are highlighted for possible references.

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    RECONSTRUCTION AND PRACTICES OF UNDERGRADUATE MECHANICS CURRICULUM IN THE NEW CONTEXT
    ZHAO Pei, WANG Hongtao, YANG Wei
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 766-770.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-497
    Abstract62)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (322KB)(66)       Save

    With the rise of new technological revolution, mechanics calls for revitalization to accommodate the characteristics of the new era, and the undergraduate phase of higher education is the first to be affected. Based on the guidelines of mechanics development and teaching practices in the Department of Mechanics Engineering of Zhejiang University, a new undergraduate curriculum is proposed for the mechanics major, in which the basic courses are taken as the root, the core professional courses as the trunk and the multidisciplinary courses as the leaves to form the tree of mechanics. We hope that this new curriculum, or "Mechanics 3.0" for abbreviation, may provide a guidance for mechanics higher educators.

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    THE BALANCE FROM RIGID TO FLEXIBLE IN STABILITY ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSION COLUMN
    LI Min, LI Yilun
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 778-782.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-080
    Abstract48)      PDF(pc) (2703KB)(69)       Save
    In order to explore the connotation of the stability of the elastic compression column, the change of the moment balance in the stability analysis is considered. The balances from rigid to flexible in stability analysis of the compression column are analyzed by using the multi-rigid rod-spring model, and the relationship between the two models and the physical significance of the critical load of the elastic compression column stability are revealed.
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 783-787.  
    Abstract38)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (2378KB)(48)       Save
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    DIFFERENTIAL QUADR ATURE METHOD FOR SOLVING BENDING DEFOR MATION PROBLEMS OF BEAMS UNDER COMPLEX LOADS 1)
    GE Renyu, LU Liangwei, ZHU Haojie, NIE Zilong, ZHANG Jinlun
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 788-793.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-386
    Abstract52)      PDF(pc) (666KB)(69)       Save
    In the classroom teaching, when there are complex loads acting on the beam, it is necessary to establish the load equation by sections, with a large amount of work in the integral calculation and the integral constant determination, especially when the distributed load is expressed in a nonlinear form, the integral operation becomes tedious. In this paper, the differential quadrature method is used to solve the bending deformation problems of beams, and the solving process is programmed. Firstly, based on the basic principle of the differential quadrature method, the load equation of the beam is transformed into a set of linear algebraic equations, and then the algebraic equations are solved by the Gaussian principal element elimination method to obtain the correct solutions of the deflection and the rotation angle of the beam. Through three teaching examples, the feasibility and the accuracy of the differential quadrature method for solving bending deformation problems of beam are verified.
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    ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR DERIVING EQUILIBRIUM DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND GEOMETRIC EQUATIONS OF ELASTICITY IN POLAR COORDINATES
    CHEN Yan, CHEN Feng, SHAO Hongcai
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 794-796.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-049
    Abstract49)      PDF(pc) (123KB)(54)       Save
    According to the transformation of the partial differential operator in rectangular and polar coordinates, the coordinate transformations of the stress and strain components, and the basis vector transformation matrix, an analytical method for deriving equilibrium differential equations and geometric equations in polar coordinates is proposed. No drawing is needed, the equations in polar coordinates can be directly derived from the equilibrium differential equations and geometric equations in rectangular coordinates, and the teaching content of elasticity course is enriched.
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    DISCUSSION OF SHEAR EFFECT ON ALLOWABLE BENDING MOMENT BASED ON THE BENDING OF SANDWICH BEAM
    WU Xiao
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 797-801.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-051
    Abstract29)      PDF(pc) (444KB)(49)       Save
    Based on the geometric relationship between the axial displacement, the transverse displacement and the shear strain in an elastic body, the bending normal stress formula of the sandwich beam is derived, and the allowable bending moment of the sandwich beam can be determined by the bending normal stress formula. Here, the shear effect is duly considered unlike the allowable bending moment calculation in the textbooks of materials mechanics. It is shown that the accuracy of the formula is high and the shear effect has a certain influence on the allowable bending moment. Thes results can be used in the teaching of the sandwich beams in the course of materials mechanics.
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    A PROOF OF THREE-RIGID PANEL RULE WITH INFINITE VIRTUAL HINGE 1)
    LIU Yafei, SHU Kai'ou, GUO Zitao, ZHANG Lei
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 802-805.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-208
    Abstract48)      PDF(pc) (501KB)(40)       Save
    Based on the plane motion of the rigid body, two theorems of kinematic characteristics of the virtual hinge and the infinite virtual hinge are proposed and proved. On this basis, a proof of the three rigid panel rule with infinite virtual hinge is given, which can help understanding better the geometric composition of the plane system and developing a new geometric composition analysis method of the plane system
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    APPLICATION OF MATLAB PROGRAMMING IN STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF LAMINATES 1)
    DONG Jiwei, CHEN Peijian, CHENG Hongmei, LUO Ning, ZHANG Guimin
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (6): 806-810.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-125
    Abstract40)      PDF(pc) (2114KB)(52)       Save
    Strength analysis of laminates is an important and difficult point in the course of mechanics of composite materials. The tedious mathematical calculations make the teaching monotonous and hard for students to accept. In order to improve the teaching, the MATLAB programming is introduced into the course. A typical example of strength analysis of orthotropic laminates is chosen to be solved, the relevant basic theories and analytical processes are made clear first, then the example is programmed with several MATLAB function files. By this method, not only the calculation process is greatly simplified, but also it is convenient to study the influence of the orthogonal laying ratio on the strength and failure processes of laminates, which provides a reliable basis for the strength design of laminates.
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    SOME PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS IN MECHANICS EDUCATION
    HU Haiyan
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 598-602.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-356
    Abstract133)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (298KB)(162)       Save

    In the mechanics education, it is urgently needed to enhance the qualities of students in solid foundation and creative ability. Even though the enhancement has been widely recognized in the Chinese circle of mechanics education, some problems remain open in practice. Based on the talent development law, the cognitive learning law and the practice innovation law, three problems are analyzed, including the curriculum optimization, the design and development of teaching materials, and the innovation in practice, and the corresponding suggestions are made. Among them, some have been validated to be possible solutions in practice.

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    CONSTRUCTION OF CLASSICAL ELASTICITY SOLUTION DATABASE WITH INDEPENDENCE AND TIMELINESS MANAGEMENT 1)
    WANG Hongwei, TANG Jianwei, QIN Shu, ZHOU Hongwei
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 603-608.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-046
    Abstract62)      PDF(pc) (3476KB)(44)       Save
    Based on our practice of the interactive operation and visual teaching methods, the Visual C++ and the MATLAB are used to construct a classical elasticity solution database, with the independence and timeliness characteristics. In order to achieve the independence call of the data and the dynamic adjustment of the visualization module, the method of the modular design and the subprogram parallel calculation is used to build the problem description module, the parameter input module, the visualization and output module and the result call module. To ensure the timeliness of the interactive operation, the multithread parallel computing and the fast and accurate result output in the display module are used in calculation subroutines of the database. Through the application of this database, the visualized, vivid and colorful teaching purpose is achieved.
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    EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF A MONKEY TOY THAT CAN STAND STEADILY AFTER A 360° SOMERSAULT 1)
    LI Kai, XUE Yongjiang
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 609-616.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-073
    Abstract88)      PDF(pc) (5694KB)(79)       Save
    A monkey toy that can stand steadily after a 360° somersault is analyzed in this paper by experimental methods. Firstly, the location of the center of mass of the monkey toy is determined by a suspension experiment. Then the compound pendulum method is used to measure the moment of inertia of the monkey toy. Finally, the stiffness of the spring used in the monkey toy is determined by a tension test. The motion of the monkey toy during its 360° somersault is measured by the digital image correlation method. The results show that the experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis, and the mechanism of the motion of the monkey toy is well explained. This experimental project can enhance students' interest in experiment and scientific research.
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    THE RELATION BETWEEN STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY OF BEAM 1)
    MA Hang, MA Yongqi, DING Weidong, DING Chao
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 617-621.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-020
    Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (219KB)(144)       Save
    In order to make a full use of the potential of materials as well as to promote the classroom teaching for the course of mechanics of materials, the strength-stiffness ratio of beams is introduced in the paper. The ratio provides a quantitative relation between the strength and the stiffness of beams in the non-dimensional form. It is independent of the magnitude of load, its value can be obtained through the finite element method or through the load test of beams. Combined with the engineering practice, the strength-stiffness ratio of beams are analyzed with its influence factors from the aspects of design and test.
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    THE REFORM OF TEACHING CONTENT FOR THE COURSE OF FOUNDATION SETTLEMENT
    GUAN Linbo
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 622-626.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-003
    Abstract61)      PDF(pc) (238KB)(50)       Save
    This paper puts forward the idea of reform of the course contents of the soil settlement, from the angle of the degree of consolidation of soil, to the calculation of the final settlement, and finally to different test methods and compressibility indexes. The new teaching idea makes a reasonable distinction between the basic theory of the soil mechanics and the practical application of the soil mechanics, which can not only guarantee the purity and the rationality of the basic theory, but also meet the challenge of the further development and enrichment of the theory due to the complexity of soil in practice.
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    COURSE EXPANSION FOR FATIGUE PROBLEM IN THE COURSE OF MECHANICS OF MATERIALS BASED ON ONLINE COURSE
    FANG Mingxia, CHEN Jie
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 627-632.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-028
    Abstract85)      PDF(pc) (6534KB)(58)       Save
    With the development of network and information technology, online course platforms are playing an important role. In view of the reduction of the course hours, the book knowledge is expanded in the form of the extended reading of the online course. Based on the online course platform, this paper extends the fatigue problem of metal materials under the stable alternating load to the fatigue problem of metal materials under the unstable load and the fatigue problem of non-metal materials, and the fatigue life estimation formula is introduced through examples. Using the online platform to integrate resources and expand knowledge plays an important role in cultivating students' ability to analyze and solve problems.
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    TEACHING OF MACHANICS OF MATERIALS WITH ENGINEERING CASES FOR UNDERGRADUATES MAJORED IN RAILWAY AND BRIDGE 1)
    FENG Wenjie, LIU Lingling
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 633-638.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-036
    Abstract95)      PDF(pc) (7122KB)(73)       Save
    In the teaching of mechanics of materials, in order to enhance students' interest in learning and the ability to solve practical problems in engineering, some engineering cases are analyzed in the context of the characteristics of railway and bridge for undergraduates. On one hand, the teaching mode can further deepen students' understanding of the basic knowledge and the concepts of mechanics of materials. On the other hand, it can improve the students' ability to solve specific problems in the professional field by using the knowledge that they have learned, and can stimulate the students' enthusiasm and initiative in learning. Many years of teaching practice have proved the effectiveness of this teaching mode.
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    TO PROMOTE STUDENTS' INNOVATIVE ABILITY BY USING CLASSROOM DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS 1)
    WANG Ying, ZHU Zhihui, LUO Jianyang, XIE Xiaoqing, LI Haiying, CAI Ruya
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (5): 639-641.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-414
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (530KB)(66)       Save
    One of the essential tasks of teaching is to stimulate students' innovative consciousness and to develop their innovative capabilities. Various simple and flexible experiments are proposed for demonstrations in teaching fluid mechanics, for arousing students'interest and inspiring their creativity thinking. Based on this teaching practice, this paper highlights several teaching experiences.
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 475-477.  
    Abstract101)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (7274KB)(65)       Save
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    THE INNOVATIVE TRAINING SYSTEM FOR INTERNATIONAL TALENTS IN ENGINEERING HIGHER EDUCATION UNDER THE BELT AND ROAD POLICY 1)
    LI Gang, SUN Lisha, YAN Jun, ZHENG Yonggang, YANG Chunqiu
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 470-474.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-402
    Abstract82)      PDF(pc) (2790KB)(75)       Save
    Under the Belt and Road Policy, we adopt a training system for international talents and construct the global cooperation and interaction theories of the universities in order to face the challenge of higher education. Under the influence of new technology, new industry and new mode of the economic development, new requirements are set for the training of engineering talents and it is necessary to have a new concept, a new structure, and a new system with quality for the innovation training system of internationalization for engineering talents. This paper focuses on the construction of new internationalized training system for engineering talents, with international interaction and courses in order to cultivate more international talents majoring in engineering, aeronautics and space and mechanics for China's economic development.
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    GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF FOUCAULT PENDULUM 1)
    WANG Ruiyin, YUAN Wei, FENG Fang, JIN Changjiang
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 478-484.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-464
    Abstract164)      PDF(pc) (241KB)(73)       Save
    The Foucault pendulum is well kmown as one of the most beautiful physics experiments, but the explanation of the Foucault pendulum is always difficult in the college physics course. Unlike the method of Newtonian mechanics, which introduces the Coriolis force to explain the rotation of the Foucault pendulum, this paper uses a geometric method to analyze the Foucault pendulum, and it is shown that the rotation of the Foucault pendulum is the result of translating the velocity vector of the pendulum on the sphere. Finally, the equivalence of the geometric method and the Newtonian mechanics method is proven.
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    THE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE INTERESTING EXPERIMENT OF ROLLING BALL
    ZHOU Liting, XIONG Jufeng
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 485-488.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-481
    Abstract102)      PDF(pc) (1343KB)(65)       Save
    This paper quantitatively analyzes the dynamic process of the "Rolling ball" experiment. In the "Rayleigh Ball" experiment, a "strange slope" is constructed to make the homogeneous ball look like a "climbing slope" by controlling the two guides. In this paper, the physical model is constructed based on the principle of the rigid body motion, and the stress and motion processes of the system are analyzed, and the formula of the maximum height of "climbing slope" of the homogeneous ball is derived. Ignoring the air resistance and the friction, when the initial distance of the two rail rods is far smaller than the radius of the ball, the small ball cannot fall and suddenly close the two rails to make them parallel. When the initial angle of the two rails is twice of the tilt angle of the rail, the homogeneous ball can reach the maximum height and the longest distance.
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    EXPLORATION AND PRACTICE OF HIGHER ORDER CONSTRUCTION FOR TEACHING OF THEORETICAL MECHANICS 1)
    YE Hongling, YANG Qingsheng, LIU Zhaomiao, LI Xiaoyang
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 489-494.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-447
    Abstract129)      PDF(pc) (557KB)(92)       Save
    The curriculum is the core element in teaching and the quality of the curriculum directly determines the quality of teaching. In order to further promote the reform of the classroom teaching, the idea of the higher-order construction and its practice for theoretical mechanics are discussed, based on the platform of the exploration and the practice of the reforms of teaching theoretical mechanics, as well as the cultivation of students' higher-order thinking ability and higher order design objective of this course. The classroom teaching system of theoretical mechanics named "1+4+$N$" is constructed. The knowledge points of theoretical mechanics course are reorganized and the teaching and the learning are unified. Taking the composition motion of points as an example, the implementation paths and strategies of higher-order course construction are analyzed.
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    PROMOTING TEACHING BY USING COMPETITION PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING MECHANICS TEACHING 1)
    CHANG Liwu, DU Yazhi
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 495-498.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-457
    Abstract74)      PDF(pc) (4045KB)(87)       Save
    This paper puts forward ways and methods of inspiring students' learning interest in engineering mechanics using the mechanical contest problems in cultivating students' creative thinking ability and mechanical modeling ability. By adjusting the content of the teaching examples, increasing the interest of the examples, strengthening the training of mechanical modeling and enhancing the consciousness of qualitative analysis, the problems encountered in the training for the mechanical competition are effectively solved. The results show that the teaching mode of "promoting teaching by competition" can effectively stimulate students' enthusiasm for learning mechanics and help them master the core content of the course.
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    GEOMETRIC AND MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ASSUMPTION OF SMALL DEFORMATION 1)
    LI Wenjuan, FENG Weiming, WANG Shaowei
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 499-503.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-20-018
    Abstract121)      PDF(pc) (184KB)(98)       Save
    Small deformation, one of the basic assumptions in mechanics, plays a critical role in the derivations and the applications of many theories in mechanic, for example, the beam and plate theories, and the mechanics of materials. The interpretation and the use of the small deformation assumption are important since wrong results may come from the misunderstanding of the concept of "small deformation". This paper studies a simple example of statically indeterminate problems. In the statically indeterminate truss, the equilibrium equations derived from the free-body diagram of the member must be complemented by relations involving deformations and obtained from the geometry of the problem. The importance of the concept of small deformation in geometric relationships is shown. It is indicated that the same definition of small deformation but different geometric relationships can result in different complementary equations in which, of course, only one of them is correct. The wrong use of small deformation assumption in the geometric relationships is pointed out to further highlight the correct concept of the small deformation.
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    THE PROBLEM OF I-II COMBINED PLANE CRACK SOLVED WITH WESTERGAARD STRESS FUNCTION
    JIANG Yuchuan, PU Chunqing
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 504-507.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-476
    Abstract82)      PDF(pc) (174KB)(47)       Save
    It is not easy to obtain directly the stress field at the crack tip of I-II combined mode plane crack problem. In this paper, the Westergaard stress function is used to solve the plane crack problem of I-II combined mode, complete with the expressions of the stress components at the crack tip. The method is simple in the derivation procedure and explicit in the physical concept, and the results are shown to agree well with available results in open literature. At the same time, the superposition principle is applied to transform the force on the crack surface into the force on the outer boundary for the problem of I-II combined plane crack with force on the crack surface.
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    DETERMINATION OF THE CRITICAL DEFLECTION OF A SLENDER COLUMN 1)
    LIU Ronggang, BIAN Wenfeng, LI Suchao, LIU Wei, JIN Songbo
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 508-510.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-491
    Abstract130)      PDF(pc) (149KB)(84)       Save
    The connotation of the critical force for the ideally elastic slender column is redefined by using rigorous boundary conditions. Based on the approximate differential equation of the deflection curve and the energy method, the limit expression of the critical force is derived, which can be used for solve the deflection uncertainty problem of slender columns under the critical force.
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    THE CONVERSION FORMULA OF CONSTRAINED FORCES AND THE TWO-FORCE BAR METHOD FOR FORCE ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE STRUCTURE 1)
    WANG Zhen, SHU Kai'ou
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (4): 511-515.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-494
    Abstract125)      PDF(pc) (983KB)(162)       Save
    For a simple statically determinate structure, there is one equilibrium equation for one unknown force. On this basis, the constrained force conversion formula and the transformation idea of two-force bar are proposed to simplify the force analysis of statically determinate structures.
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    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (3): 344-346.  
    Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (1696KB)(176)       Save
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    PRACTICE OF SOFT ROBOTICS AND INNOVATION EDUCATION
    FENG Ruoyu, CHEN Lu, ZHANG Houzhen, DU Shuyuan
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (3): 347-350.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-351
    Abstract211)      PDF(pc) (685KB)(110)       Save
    The course of practice can help cultivate students' skills of do-it-by-oneself and cooperation, and teach them the practical applications of theories. Recently the soft robotics becomes a nascent research field, which contains abundant mechanical principles. This paper explores an application of the soft robotics for teaching mechanics, including the methods of selecting subjects and organizing. As an implementation, in the soft robotics program of the 2019 aerospace technology science innovation and practice camp held by Tsinghua University, 14 undergraduate participants successfully developed 5 soft robots using different actuation mechanisms and locomotion gaits.
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    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ARTIFICIAL AND COMMERCIAL PIPES IN TRANSITION ZONE 1)
    HUANG Shuxin, LI Yunlei, QU Dongyue, PAN Zheng
    Mechanics in Engineering    2020, 42 (3): 351-354.   DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-364
    Abstract95)      PDF(pc) (145KB)(71)       Save
    Pipe friction is a teaching content in the course of fluid mechanics, in which Darcy friction factors in transition zone obtained by using artificial and commercial pipes are different. The present work shows analyses on the difference at two aspects. One is according to the understanding of students on the problem, and another is from the definition of surface roughness. Both show the surface roughness effect on the phenomenon. It is still necessary to research the quantitative effect of surface roughness on the difference between artificial and commercial pipes in transition zone.
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