In the tensor analysis, symmetry breakages exist in concepts——there is differential of tensor, but there is no variational of tensor; in theories——there is differential theory of tensor, but there is no variational theory of tensor. However, the symmetry breakages can be compensated, as shown in this paper. The developing history of the concept of the virtual particle time derivative will be reviewed, as well as the process of abstracting the concept of the local variational of tensor and the procedure of constructing the variational theory of tensor. The symmetry between the variational theory and the differential theory for tensor will thus be revealed.
The fracture toughness test of low constraint specimens is of great significance for the safe operation of oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, the existing fracture toughness testing methods and the development process of low constraint specimens are reviewed, and the common fracture toughness characterization parameters such as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and J-integral are introduced. The key problems such as the stress intensity factor, the J-integral plasticity factor, the J-integral and CTOD conversion factor, the crack size measurement method, and the digital image correlation method, in the fracture toughness test, are analyzed, and the problems that need to be further studied are summarized, to provide a necessary basis for the development of fracture toughness test of low constraint specimens.
The concept of the supersonic biplane was proposed by Adolf Busemann, a German aerodynamist, in 1935. In recent years, the supersonic biplane has re-attracted the aeronautical scientist's interest in order to meet the needs of supersonic transport's low sonic boom and low supersonic cruise drag. In this paper, the working mechanism of the typical supersonic biplane is summarized. The basic problems faced by the application of the supersonic biplane, such as non-design point characteristics and three-dimensional problems, are introduced. Finally, the key problems and the application prospects of the supersonic biplane in the future are prospected.
The aircraft dynamics and control has achieved a significant progress, but also faces a series of problems that need to be dealt with. Deep learning provides a new solution for these problems, and it is good in many aspects, such as the working model of the experience storage, the intelligent accumulation and the off-line training. In this study, around the subject of the autonomy and the intelligence enhancement for the flight control, the applications of the deep learning in aircraft dynamics and control are reviewed in three aspects: (1) applications of deep learning in dynamic modeling to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of modeling, or to solve the problem of inverse dynamics; (2) applications of deep learning in optimal control to improve the speed of trajectory planning or the real-time performance and autonomy of flight control; (3) applications of deep learning in mission design to improve optimization speed and decision-making intelligence. Furthermore, the advantages and the disadvantages are analyzed and representative papers are introduced. Finally, four suggestions to apply the deep learning in aircraft dynamics and control are given.
After the evolution of hundreds of millions of years, most turtles have developed excellent shells with high specific stiffness and toughness. Obviously, the multi-scale structural characteristics and the biological material mechanical behavior of these turtle shells can be used for promoting the bio-inspired design of safety protection structures. This paper reviews the research progress of the turtle shell relevant to its protective functions, including the macro and micro features of the carapace and the corresponding mechanical properties. In addition, some carapace-inspired designs that could be adopted in protection structures are summarized. Finally, the existing problems and the focus of the future research are discussed, to provide some food for thought in the bio-inspired design of safety protection systems in future.
The movements of the asteroids in the Kuiper belt are important for us to understand the origin and the evolution of the solar system. Since the Kuiper belt objects (KBO) are a short distance to the Neptune of a great mass, the KBOs are significantly perturbed by Neptune's gravity. In this paper, we focus on two main families: the resonant and the scattered KBOs. The mean motion resonance can prevent the resonant KBOs from a close encounter with the Neptune. Thus most resonant KBOs are stable on their orbits. Here we mainly investigate the resonance width and strength of different resonant ratios with a high eccentricity. As for the scattered KBOs, their evolution is affected jointly by the resonance sticking and the resonance scattering. Here we are mainly concerned with the problem why there are a high number of KBOs in the scattered disc.
The asteroid is of great significance for studying the formation of planets, the origin of life on the Earth, the defense against the collision of asteroids to the Earth and the mining on asteroids. Due to the insufficient capacity of the existing propulsion technology, the velocity increment needed to optimize the asteroid capture is the key for a successful capture mission. This paper reviews the capture orbit optimization method for asteroid and the extended capture period with the impulse thrust and lowthrust propulsions, including the strategy to capture asteroids by the gravity assisted and resonant orbital techniques, the continuous low thrust and temporary asteroid capture, and the scheme of extending the capture period.
With its great national strategic importance and socio-economic benefits, the high-speed vehicle always plays a specific role in the field of aerospace. In this paper, the structural optimization technique and its application in the aircraft design are reviewed firstly. Then, the specific applications of structural optimization techniques in the high-speed vehicle design are then discussed in the context of the typical service environment and the design requirement. We show typical cases subsequently with applications in the concept design of the high-speed vehicle and in the innovative and improved design of their parts over the last years. In view of the solid theoretical foundations as well as the numerous successful engineering practices of the structural optimization, it not only provides an effective tool, but also brings about revolutionary changes for the design of high-speed vehicle structures. It is anticipated that the structural optimization supplemented by the empirical design will surely be a standard procedure for the aircraft design, and the practice-oriented research will undoubtedly enhance the core competitiveness of the aerospace industry in China
This is the question asked in class: is it possible to obtain the covariant derivative of natural base vectors? To answer this question, the idea of axiomazitaion is introduced, the concepts of the generalized component and the generalized covariant derivative are defined. Based on these new concepts, the classical covariance is developed into the generalized covariance, and the classical covariant differentiation is developed into the generalized covariant differentiation. This paper summarizes the main difficulties and the important points of the above explorations, and shows the abstractions of the generalized covariant derivatives and the advances of the generalized covaraibilities.
The influence of the locked-in stress on the rock mechanical properties cannot be ignored. Since Chen Zongji proposed the definition of the locked-in stress in rocks, there were very few related studies. Starting from the definition, combined with the current development of the rock mechanics, this paper expands the concept of the locked-in stress，in a new definition of the locked-in stress in rocks. The forms of the stress in accordance with the new definition of the locked-in stress in the rock mechanics research are classified. The variation law of various kinds of locked-in stress and its empirical formula are summarized. The correlation between the locked-in stress and the excavation of the underground engineering and its influence are discussed. This paper provides a new way to explain the special phenomenon of deep rock mechanics.
The flexible stress sensitive conductive polymer composites (CPCs) have a wide application prospect in the fields of the wearable human machine interaction, the medical monitoring, the portable sports equipment and the bionic robot, and others. The conductive percolation theory, the response mechanisms and the sensitivity of the stress sensitive CPCs are discussed in this paper. The response characteristics of different types of stress sensitive CPCs are reviewed, including the numerical predications. Finally, the future development is commented.
The compression boundary layer transition and separation caused by the interference of the shock and the boundary layer directly affect the drag, surface thermal protection and the flight performance of flying vehicles. This paper first reviews the past work on the interference between the shock wave and the boundary layer. And then, the effects of the forward shock, the oblique shock and the head shock on the laminar flow and the turbulent boundary layer of supersonic and transonic flows are studied and compared. The shock waves of different intensities have different effects on the boundary layer.A strong interference is more likely to cause the separation and the airfoil stall.
Some fundamental concepts and problems in the research field of the structural topology optimization are introduced briefly. The essential characteristics of the truss-like and its discretization are analyzed. The classical analytical solutions as the benchmarks are listed in the references. The optimization strategies and the characteristics of various numerical methods for the structural topology optimization are reviewed. The numerical instabilities, such as the mesh-dependencies, the singular optima, the checkerboards and the local constraints, commonly in the structural topology optimization, are explained. The fundamental principles of the optimality criteria, the sequential programming and the heuristic methods are discussed.
The techniques for the drag reduction of large transport aircraft are reviewed in this paper. The techniques intended to reduce the friction drag, the induced drag and the wave drag are reviewed specifically. Techniques like the suction control for delay boundary layer transition, the riblets for reducing turbulent friction drag, and the winglet are relatively mature for practical application. Distributed roughness, plasma actuators and the contour bump are most like to be used in the newly designed large transport aircraft. These newly developed techniques might be useful in further improving the drag characteristic of the next generation aircraft.
Since the hypersonic vehicle is acted by a serious aerodynamic thermal load caused by the flight through the atmosphere, it is necessary to consider the effect of the high temperature in the ground test of the vehicle structures. But the structural modal experiment in a high temperature environment is far more complex than the normal modal experiment with many technical difficulties to be solved. In this paper, the advance of the thermal modal test technology is reviewed. The characteristics and the applicability of the excitation and measurement techniques to be used in the high temperature environment are discussed in detail. The development direction and the research focus of the structural modal test technology in the high temperature environment are suggested.
The thermal vibration is the inherent vibration of nanostructures, which plays an important role in the dynamics of nanostructures. The quantum effects, the boundary effects and the van der Waals interaction have a significant influence on the thermal vibration of nanostructures. The carbon nanotubes and the graphene were extensively studied for their novel electronic properties and superior mechanical strength. This paper reviews some research methods for the thermal vibration of nanostructures, the thermal vibration of the carbon nanotube and the graphene in low temperatures and the nonlinear thermal vibration of the carbon nanotube.
The early-age concrete under the condition of restrained shrinkage is easy to crack, which would affect safety and durability of the structure, as well as the applicability. So it is very important to provide a simple and effective method to assess the crack resistance of the early-age concrete. In view of providing certain rigidity and the convenience of laboratory constraints, the restrained shrinkage ring test is widely used to evaluate the crack resistance of the concrete under restrained shrinkage conditions. This paper discusses the development of the restrained shrinkage ring test, the failure mechanism and the impact of three factors. The restrained shrinkage ring test is recommended as a standard test method by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the test is conducted for different purposes, including the failure mechanism based on the maximum tensile stress fracture mechanics theory and the fracture energy to predict the concrete cracking. The annular test specimen geometry, the boundary conditions, the performance of the concrete materials and the pre-crack are considered as influencing factors. A test method of elliptical ring is adopted, which can effectively assess the crack resistance of the concrete under conditions of high degree of restraint.
The transfer orbit for the human lunar mission means that between the trans-lunar orbit and the trans-earth orbit, and it has the characteristics of long flight time, complex dynamics model, and strong nonlinear and variable coe-cients. The controllability of the inevitable deviation afiects the result of the task execution, even the success or the failure of the engineering task directly. This paper reviews the studies of the transfer orbit of human lunar mission, the analysis method of the deviation propagation, the mid-course correction optimal strategy and the mid-course correction aiming algorithm. At last, some suggestions are made or the mid-course correction of the Chinese human lunar mission in the future.
For the design and the safety assessment of wood structures, an adequate knowledge of wood fracture behavior is important. Due to the complexity in its structure, wood is naturally anisotropic in the macroscopic scale, which makes it more di-cult to study wood failure based on fracture mechanics than to study isotropic materials. Therefore, only fractures of pure mode I and pure mode Ⅱ were given a considerable attention. Wood structural members are, however, often subject to the mixed mode fracture in reality, and the mixed mode fracture is now one of hot topics in the fracture studies. This paper gives a literature review on the wood mixed fracture from two aspects:the fracture criterion and the testing method. After an introduction of some empirical and physical models to predict the mixed mode fracture failure of wood, a comparison is made among these models using the test data in the literature. Various test methods are reviewed, with focus on fractures of mode I and mode Ⅱ combined. Some issues for future studies are highlighted.
The studies on discrete Boltzmann modeling and simulation of phase separation are reviewed. According to the system component, the studies cover the single-component two-phase separation and the multi-component phase separation. According to the physical modeling, the studies cover the LBM (lattice Boltzmann method) simulations based on traditional hydrodynamic modeling and discrete kinetic modeling of the phase separation system. According to the main focus, the topic covers method/model studies and physical behavior investigations. The discrete kinetic modeling has brought some deeper insights into the phase separation process. The features of non-equilibriums obtained from discrete Boltzmann simulations can serve as some simple and effective physical criteria for dividing the two stages of phase separation, and can be used to discriminate and track various interfaces.
The prediction of high-frequency dynamic response of composite structures is one of key steps in the structural design of the aircraft and other vehicles. In order to make an accurate prediction, three methods are discussed. The energy finite element method is found to be suitable to obtain accurately the dynamic response of composite structures. In this paper, the energy finite element analysis and its applications for composite structures are reviewed. Some important issues for the further applications are suggested.
Sloshing of liquid propellant in microgravity and its influence on the attitude control system have been studied for several decades. Accurate modeling is necessary, especially, for modern spacecrafts carrying large amounts of liquid propellant. Research progress on this issue is reviewed, including a summary of analytical methods for both linear and nonlinear sloshing, an introduction of numerical techniques such as modal analysis and CFD (computational fluid dynamics) methods, and also a description of experimental approaches and advances. Finally, some critical problems concerning liquid sloshing in microgravity are proposed and discussed.