力学与实践 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (4): 941-946.DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-22-250

• 教育研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

如何在教学中培养学生的思维和能力(2):定性与定量

高云峰()   

  1. 清华大学航天航空学院,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2022-04-22 接受日期:2022-06-29 出版日期:2022-08-08 发布日期:2022-08-17
  • 作者简介:E-mail: gaoyunfeng@tsinghua.edu.cn

HOW TO CULTIVATE STUDENTS’ THINKING AND ABILITY IN TEACHING (2): QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

GAO Yunfeng()   

  1. School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2022-04-22 Accepted:2022-06-29 Online:2022-08-08 Published:2022-08-17

摘要:

定量分析依据数据和模型,计算出分析对象的各项指标及其数值。定性分析主要凭直觉、经验,对分析对象的性质、特点、变化规律作出判断。定量分析的前提是有足够的数据和确定的模型,而定性分析适用于数据不充分或者模型不清楚的情况。文章从定性与定量分析的角度,介绍了落体相对垂线的偏离、如何画四叶玫瑰线、欹器的原理及设计等问题,这些问题可以用定性分析的方法获得初步的结果,然后再利用定量计算获得具体细节信息,让学生体会到定性与定量分析相结合,可以既简单又巧妙地解决复杂问题。

关键词: 定性与定量, 落体, 四叶玫瑰线, 欹器

Abstract:

The indexes and values of the system will be obtained by quantitative analysis based on the data and model, and the nature, characteristics and change rules of the system will be judged by qualitative analysis based on intuition and experience. The premise of quantitative analysis is sufficient data and definite model, while qualitative analysis is suitable for the situation when the data is insufficient or the model is unclear. From the perspective of qualitative and quantitative analysis, this paper introduces the distance of the relative to vertical deviation of falling body, and how to draw four-leaf rose line, and the principle and design of a tilted container in ancient China. The preliminary results of these problems can be obtained by using the method of qualitative analysis, then the details information of these problems can be known by using the method of quantitative calculation, to make students to realize the complex problems can be solved simply and skillfully by the combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Key words: qualitative and quantitative analysis, falling body, four-leaf rose line, tilted container

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