力学与实践 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (4): 485-488.DOI: 10.6052/1000-0879-19-481

• 教育研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

"瑞利球"趣味实验的动力学分析

周丽婷1), 熊举峰2)   

  1. 湖南师范大学物理与电子科学学院,长沙 410000
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-23 出版日期:2020-08-20 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 1)周丽婷,硕士研究生,主修物理学科教学。E-mail: 2461935995@qq.com; 2)熊举峰,副教授,从事物理教学、物理实验设计。E-mail: creamwinter@outlook.com

THE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE INTERESTING EXPERIMENT OF ROLLING BALL

ZHOU Liting1), XIONG Jufeng2)   

  1. School of Physics and Electronic Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410000, China
  • Received:2019-12-23 Online:2020-08-20 Published:2020-08-25

摘要: 本文定量分析了"瑞利球"实验的动力学过程。"瑞利球"实验中构建了一个"怪坡",通过对两导轨的控制,使均质圆球看起来像在"爬坡"。文中据刚体运动原理构建了物理模型,并分析系统的受力情况和运动过程,导出了均质圆球"爬坡"的最大高度的公式。在忽略空气阻力与摩擦力情况下,当两导轨杆初始距离远小于圆球半径、小球刚好不能掉落时突然合拢两导轨使其平行、两导轨初始夹角等于两倍导轨倾斜角时,均质圆球可以达到最大高度和最远距离。

关键词: 冲量定理, 刚体动能, 能量转化

Abstract: This paper quantitatively analyzes the dynamic process of the "Rolling ball" experiment. In the "Rayleigh Ball" experiment, a "strange slope" is constructed to make the homogeneous ball look like a "climbing slope" by controlling the two guides. In this paper, the physical model is constructed based on the principle of the rigid body motion, and the stress and motion processes of the system are analyzed, and the formula of the maximum height of "climbing slope" of the homogeneous ball is derived. Ignoring the air resistance and the friction, when the initial distance of the two rail rods is far smaller than the radius of the ball, the small ball cannot fall and suddenly close the two rails to make them parallel. When the initial angle of the two rails is twice of the tilt angle of the rail, the homogeneous ball can reach the maximum height and the longest distance.

Key words: impulse theorem, rigid kinetic energy, energy conversion

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